Hawthorn (Crataegus columbiana) North American hawthorn species were used by many Native tribes for various purposes including relieving stomachache, as a female tonic, for bladder and kidney troubles, and to strengthen the heart (Foster, 2009). Hawthorn’s current use as an herbal cardiac tonic emerged in England in the late 1800s, after an Irish physician named Greene became well-known for successfully treating heart patients with a hawthorn berry extract (Foster, 2009). Today, herbalists use hawthorn extract as a general cardiac tonic, for cases of angina, high blood pressure, early stages of congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis (Murray, 1995). It is the go-to herb for any heart-related condition, including helping to support the heart following a heart attack. It is also used as a nervine and anti-inflammatory herb. Hawthorn extract is believed to increase the strength of heart muscle contractions, as well as helping to modestly reduce serum cholesterol levels and plaque deposits in the arteries (Foster, 2009; Murray, 1995), although the latter assertion needs more research on the clinical level. Hawthorn appears to improve the mechanics of the heart and its metabolic processes, dilate coronary arteries, and inhibit enzymes that cause vasoconstriction (Murray, 1995; Verma et al, 2007). These actions make it useful in early congestive heart may indicate that WS® 1442 can potentially reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death, at least in patients with less compromised left ventricular function” (Holubarsch et al., 2008). Naturopathic physician Michael T. Murray (1995) explains that hawthorn’s flavonoids help protect and stabilize the collagen matrix within the artery by cross-linking fibers, scavenging free radicals, quenching inflammation, and inhibiting the release of inflammatory agents. Maintaining sound arterial integrity and protecting the arterial walls from lesions discourage cholesterol deposits. Hawthorn also inhibits LDL oxidation (Quettier-Deleu et al., 2003). Hawthorn is also a calming nervine and is used much like rose, and often with rose, to heal, open, and protect the energetic heart. Hawthorn is Rosemary Gladstar’s (2010) favorite remedy for sadness, grief, and loss or when the hearts needs a bit of extra protection.